Fotbalové míče a jejich historie

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Fotbal patří k nejpopulárnějším sportům na celé planetě. Hraje se s míčem, který však vždy nebyl stejný jako dnes. Pojďme se tedy podívat na historii fotbalového míče. Míče mají dlouhou historii a hodně se za tu dobu změnily.

Původní míče z prasečích močových měchýřů

Původně se na fotbalový míč využívaly úplně přírodní materiály, které by pro současné hráče možná byly až nehratelné. Jedním z prvních používaných materiálů totiž byly nafouknuté prasečí močové měchýře. Aby takový míč více vydržel, býval obalený ve vepřové kůži. Nejstarší takto dochovaný míč pochází dokonce z poloviny šestnáctého století a nalezen byl na Britských ostrovech. Velmi důležitý zlom nastal v polovině devatenáctého století, kdy Američan Charles Goodyear našel způsob, jak vulkanizovat gumu. To s sebou přineslo spoustu změn a zásadní to bylo i pro fotbal. V roce 1855 totiž samotný Charles Goodyear vyrobil první kulatý míč z tohoto materiálu. Dřívější míče praskaly, nedržely tvar a ve hře tedy často představovaly prvek náhody. Gumový míč se však choval přesně podle toho, jak fotbalista zamýšlel.

Změna z tmavé na bílou

Až díky kvalitním gumovým míčům mohl vzniknout fotbal v takové podobě, v jaké ho dnes známé a máme rádi. Z gumy se navíc daly vyrábět míče stejné velikosti, takže se mohla standardizovat i velikost – od roku 1873 tedy obvod fotbalového míče měřil 69-71 centimetrů. Starší typy míčů byly tmavé, protože tato barva byla pro kůži přirozená a až do půlky padesátých let dvacátého století to nikomu nevadilo. Ovšem s rozvojem televizorů se zjistilo, že černý míč má na černobílých obrazovkách špatnou barvu a není na zelené trávě skoro viditelný. Tím pádem se v roce 1951 změnila barva míče na bílou.

Míč pro EURO 2016

Na posledním mistrovství Evropy se hrálo s míčem pojmenovaným Beau Jeu, což v překladu znamená „Krásná hra“. Míč vyrobila společnost Adidas a vyveden byl ve francouzských barvách. Hráči přivítali, že míč příliš neodskakoval, držel na noze a chválili i povedený design. Na plášti se překrývaly číslice 2016 s písmeny skládajícími dohromady nápis EURO. Testování míče probíhalo osmnáct měsíců a podíleli se na něm i někteří hvězdní fotbalisté jako Gareth Bale či Iker Casillas. Nechyběl ani výzkum pomocí robotických přístrojů v laboratořích. Míč měl dva ventilky, aby zachovával rovnováhu

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